Now that we have dealt with present participles, it is necessary for those in the novice in this field to look at the future participles tense. It has to be kept in mind about the future participle tense that it does not suffice to use a single word in the case of future participle tense, unlike the present tense.
Also, bear in mind that while atmanepada and parasmaipada are relatively simpler, the complications arise when it comes to the future passive tense.
How to let us deal with simpler atmanepada and parasmaipada right now. The rules are the same as the present participle, however, the verb stem, unlike present participle, is that of the future tense.
Example, bhavshyat, which means will be becoming., or bhavishyaama. These two verbs give details regarding an event that is going to take place, that is what is “about” to happen and the decision ”yet to be taken”, that is the intentions of the person for the future.
This can be further explained with two examples.
स्वकुशलमयीं हारयिष्यन् प्रवृत्तिम्
svakuśalamayīṃ hārayiṣyan pravṛttim
Intending to convey tidings of his welfare.
गमिष्यन्तं नरं पश्यामः
gamiṣyantaṃ naraṃ paśyāmaḥ
We see the man who is about to go, which means, We see the will-be-going man.
The above-mentioned examples are quite simple, we will now deal with a little more twisty future passive tense. This will be an interesting ride.
Before we take the learners further, we need to look at the example given below.
I remember the woman.
Now let us see through the diagram below will this word proceed towards being the future passive participle.
I will remember the woman
The woman will be remembered by me.
The woman is to be remembered by me.
The last sentence in the diagram takes us to the participle form of the word, now we shall deal with how this sentence consists of a future passive participle. Look at the diagram given below to understand the process in further detail.
We saw the to-be-remembered woman.
We see the to-be-remembered woman.
We will see them to be remembered the woman.
It is in this manner that we come to the future passive participle. But let us make our lives a little more comfortable and the way we called PPP, present passive participle, let’s call this future passive participle. What is life without a few abbreviations!
Now let us bear in mind what has been told to us for a long time now, that Sanskrit is a language built on suffix, however, there are so many of them that it might get difficult to identify them, so our first step should be an effort to identify them.
Task 1: suffix “tavya”
Look at the table given below to understand the way it transforms a word and yields it a passive form. Please observe that Tavya suffix is used and the vowel of the root is strenghtened to the medium level.
|Word||FPP||Meaning or any comments (if necessary).|
|गम् , gam||गन्तव्य, gantavya.||To be gone to. Its intriguing how gam in the root word changes to gn in the FPP.|
|युध्, yudh||योद्धव्य, yudhatva||To be fought.|
|कृ , kru||कर्तव्य, kartavya||To be done.|
|भू , bhu||भवितव्य, bhavitya.||To be caused.|
Task 2: suffix ya.
The suffix of “ya” is used when a vowel occurs word finally in the root word. In the diagram below, look at the rules for the same.
ā, i, ī
New Vowel. (corresponding to the order above)
o or au
Now, look at the tables given below to acquire more clarity regarding the above-mentioned rule.
|Word||FPP||Meaning or comments (if necessary).|
|स्था, stha||स्थेय, stheya||To be stationed, stood, placed.|
|जि, ji||जेय, jeya||To be conquered.|
|भू, bhu||भाव्य, bhavya||To be caused.|
|कृ, kru||कार्य, karya||To be done.|
Now let us look at what happens when the vowel in the root is followed by a consonant by looking at the table given below.
|Original vowel||New vowel|
|i||e, but not at all times.|
|u||o, but not at all times|
|a||ā,but not at all times|
Now we shall look at the examples given below to understand this further.
|Word||FPP||Meaning or comments (if necessary)|
|युज्, yuj||योज्य, yojya||To be joined with|
|वच्,vac||वाच्य, vacya||To be spoken|
|दृश् , dṛś||दृष्य, dṛśya||To be seen.|
Task 3. Let us now look t suffix anīya.
In this suffix, the root vowel is strenghtened to the medium level. And we shall resort to the table again!
|Word||FPP||Meanings or comments (if necessary)|
|भू,bhu||भवनीय,bhavaniya||To be caused.|
|ईक्ष् , īkṣ||ईक्षणीय, īkṣaṇīya||To be seen.|
|चिन्त्, cint||चिन्तनीय, cintanīya||To be thought.|
It is important to note that the vowels of words like the īkṣ and cint are never strenghtened to the medium level.
Few suggestions for the use of FPP.
As a noun
प्रेक्ष् → प्रेक्षणीय
prekṣ → prekṣaṇīya
behold, see → to be beheld, a thing to be beheld; a beautiful sight, a spectacle
As a situation
kair mayā saha yoddhavyam, which means “whom must i fight?”, which can also be read as “Who has to be fought by me?”
As a suggesion of duty.
duty means “karya”, which means to be done, it also hints at “should be”.