Now have you noticed here that the Sanskrit proverb is on the left side whereas the compound is on the right side. However, both of them denote same meaning. This is possible because of the addition of “ca. Hence this type of compound is known as “Dvandva”.

फलं पत्त्रं च → फलपत्त्रे
phalaṃ pattraṃ ca → phalapattre
A fruit and a leaf.

If the items in a dvandva compound have an extremely strong relationship to each other — especially if they’re opposites — then they may optionally appear in the neuter singular. (The neuter gender is often used to represent abstract ideas.) When used in the neuter singular, the dvandva is slightly more than the sum of its parts:

सुखं दुःखं च → सुखदुःखे
sukhaṃ duḥkhaṃ ca → sukhaduḥkhe
Happiness and sadness (neuter dual)
Using dvandva compound
सुखं दुःखं च → सुखदुःखं
sukhaṃ duḥkhaṃ ca → sukhaduḥkhaṃ
Happiness and sadness (neuter singular); the spectrum of happiness and sadness

आहारो निद्रा भयं च → आहारनिद्राभयम्
āhāro nidrā bhayaṃ ca → āhāranidrābhayam
Food, sleep, and fear (neuter singular); the characteristics of animal life
Using dvandva compound
आहारो निद्रा भयं च → आहारनिद्राभयम्
āhāro nidrā bhayaṃ ca → āhāranidrābhayam
Food, sleep, and fear (neuter singular); the characteristics of animal life

The gender of the compound

Like the tatpurusha, the dvandva takes the gender of its last noun.

वृक्षाः फलानि च → वृक्षफलानि
vṛkṣāḥ phalāni ca → vṛkṣaphalāni
Trees and fruits

फलानि वृक्षाश् च → फलवृक्षाः
phalāni vṛkṣāś ca → phalavṛkṣāḥ
Fruits and trees

Ambiguities in compounds

Because only the last noun is inflected, it is quite possible that we could perhaps lose information regarding the noun inside the compound. However, this is not the case with dual words, for instance, phalapattre in this compound we can clearly identify two nouns present in there, i.e. phala and patter. Another interesting thing about the compound is that it can also be produced by different proverbs. Let us look at some of the examples.

सिंहौ गजश् च → सिंहगजाः
siṃhau gajaś ca → siṃhagajāḥ
The two lions (dual) and the elephant (singular)

सिंहा गजश् च → सिंहगजाः
siṃhā gajaś ca → siṃhagajāḥ
The lions (plural) and the elephant (singular)

सिंहो गजाश् च → सिंहगजाः
siṃho gajāś ca → siṃhagajāḥ
The lion (singular) and the elephants (plural)

Compounds in compounds

Another distinct quality of compounds is that new compounds can be formed by putting a compound inside the compound. This lets us make bigger and complex compounds. Let us see an example;

The village of the hero of the elephant forest.

Such form of compounds are seen in Vedic Sanskrit but is rarely seen in later Sanskrit.

Tatpurusha part 2

In part 2 of tatpurusha, we are going to see some more features of tatpurusha.

अनु + स्वारः → अनुस्वारः
anu + svāraḥ → anusvāraḥ
After/along + sound → “after-sound,” the anusvāra
(Note that this is a noun).

अनु + कूलः → अनुकूलः
anu + kūlaḥ → anukūlaḥ
After/along + bank (of a river) → “along-bank,” along the bank; agreeable, favorable
(Note that this is an adjective).

“Not” and “With”

As in our earlier course, we have already studied the prefixes a/an and sa, which are associated with the tatpurusha. These prefixes can be used together. They can even be repeated:

वर्ण → सवर्ण → असवर्ण
varṇa → savarṇa → asavarṇa
Color → “of the same color”; homogeneous → inhomogeneous

वद्य → अवद्य → अनवद्य
vadya → avadya → anavadya
To be spoken of → unspeakable, blameworthy → not blameworthy, faultless

By now we have come to know that the compound dvandva is an idea, hence, we will put the compound into the category of an idea as shown below;