A prefix is a group of sound attached to the start of the word whereas; a suffix is attached to the end of the word. Now suffixes are of two types: 1) Primary and 2) Secondary. First, let us understand Primary suffix. Primary suffixes are the one that turns verbs into nouns. So let us take a look at some of the common Primary suffixes in Sanskrit.

Suffix Meaning Gender

Various Masculine
The act of doing
Means of doing Neuter

The root vowel of a and ana may be strengthened if the vowel contains a sound

Now let us take a look at each of the example.

जय् → जय
jay → jaya
Win, conquer → victory

सर्ज् → सर्ग
sarj → sarga
Send forth → creation; the creation of the world

विसर्ज् → विसर्ग
vi-sarj → vi-sarga
Send forth → the visarga

नय् → नाय
nay → nāya
Lead → guidance, direction

आगम् → आगम
āgam → āgama
Come, reach → “coming near,” acquisition


The sound ana does not cause any constant shift of sound. You just have to add the sound to the end of the root. It denotes the act of doing something. Let us consider some of the examples to understand it better.

दर्श् → दर्शन
darś → darśana
See → the act of seeing; darśana

नय् → नयन
nay → nayana
Lead → the act of leading or bringing; “that which does leading,” i.e. the eye

उपनय् → उपनयन
upa-nay → upa-nayana
Lead to oneself → the act of leading to oneself, i.e. the ritual initiation into the study of the Vedas


tra is another simple suffix which denotes the means of doing something. So let us take a look at some example.

नय् → नेत्र
nay → netra
Lead → “means of leading,” eye