Sanskrit Nouns are divided into 8  Nouns cases. They are; nominative, vocative, accusative, instrumental, dative, ablative, genitive and locative. Let us understand them deeply.

Cases Meaning
Nominative (case1)In this case the noun names a particular thing which means that the noun takes the position of the subject in a sentence. For example, “man eats”
Accusative (case 2)
This case denotes”to/toward”. The noun in this case occupies the place of direct object. “they eat men”
Instrumental (case3)This case denotes “by/through/by the means of/with”. The noun in this case appears as an instrument of the verb. “they grow by men”
Dative (case4)This case denotes “to/for”. The noun in this case occupies the place of indirect object. “We give food to man”. man here is the indirect object whereas food is the direct object
Ablative (case5)This case denotes “from/because of/due to”. Noun in this case indicates the origin or the instrument. “they come form man” or “form man everything else is generated”
Genitive (case6)This case denotes “of” i.e. the noun in this case gives a sense of belonging to. “the cat of man”
Locative (case7)This case denotes “in/on”. The noun in this case gives a sense of location. “virtues live in man”
Vocative (case8)This case denotes “oh/hey” i.e. noun in this case indicates calling or invocation. “hey wake up” or “hey, come here”
  Singular Dual Plural
Case 1 (subject) गजः
gajaḥ
गजौ
gajau
गजाः
gajāḥ

Case 2 (object ) गजम्
gajam
गजौ
gajau
गजान्
gajān
Case 3 (with) गजेन
gajena
गजाभ्याम्
gajābhyām
गजैः
gajaiḥ
Case 4 (for) गजाय
gajāya
Case 5 (from) गजात्
gajāt
Case 6 (of) गजस्य
gajasya
गजयोः
gajayoḥ
गजानाम्
gajānām
Case 7 (in) गजे
gaje
Case 8 (address) गज
gaja
गजौ
gajau
गजाः
gajāḥ

Case 1: “Subject”

It is the case in which the noun takes of the subject or it states something about the subject. For example, “man eats” in this example noun is a subject that is eating something. Similarly, in Sanskrit, we can say that:

नरः गच्छति (the man goes)”

Forms of noun गज (elephant)

Singular Dual Plural
Subject गजः
gajaḥ
गजौ
gajau
गजाः

gajāḥ

 


Case 2: “Object”

In this case, noun occupies the place of the direct object, which means hat noun here is stating something. For instance, “they eat man”. Here man is the direct object being eaten by the subject. In Sanskrit we can say that:

                                                                            Here the hero is the direct object.

कृष्णः वीरम् पृच्छति
kṛṣṇaḥ vīram pṛcchati
Krishna asks the hero

Case 2 (object ) गजम्

gajam

 

गजौ

gajau

 

गजान्

gajān

 

Case 3: “With”

In this case, noun appears to be the instrument of the verb or we can say that noun describes “means” of something. For instance; it is grown by men” noun here is followed by the verb. In Sanskrit we can say that;

गजेन गच्छामि
gajena gacchāmi
I go alongside (with) the elephant

Case 3 (with) गजेन

gajena

 

गजाभ्याम्

gajābhyām

 

गजैः

gajaiḥ

 

Case 4: “for”

In this case, the noun appears to be the indirect object in the sentence. This case also denotes purpose as in “I broke the coconut for some water,” and benefactor, as in “I broke the coconut for a friend.” In Sanskrit we can say:

वीरो नराय गच्छति
vīro narāya gacchati
The hero speaks for (the benefit of) the man.

Case 4 (for) गजाय

gajāya

 

   

Case 6: “of”

In this case, noun gives a sense of belonging. This case is an unusual one because it connects two nouns rather a noun to verb.  For instance, “the cat or man” or “the behavior of man”

In Sanskrit, we can say that

गजानां वनं गच्छन्ति
gajānāṃ vanaṃ gacchanti

They go to the forest of the

In another sense case, 6 also refer to” having something” or “possessing something”

वीरस्य कृष्णो ऽश्वः (भवति)
vīrasya kṛṣṇo ‘śvaḥ (bhavati)
vīrasya kṛṣṇo ‘śvaḥ (bhavati)

Case 6 (of) गजस्य
gajasya
 
गजयोः
gajayoḥ
 
गजानाम्
gajānām 

 Case 7: “in”

Case 7 denotes location which in English is “in” and “on” in Sanskrit we can say that;

There also precise examples regarding the context of the sentence. For instance,

क्षेत्रे कृष्णेन सह वीरा नन्दन्ति
kṣetre kṛṣṇena saha vīrā nandanti
In the field, the heroes, with Krishna, rejoiced.

स मरणे मन्यते
sa maraṇe manyate
He thinks in (the context of) death

Case 8: “of

in this case, the noun is directly concerned with the person or with the subject of the subject. It is similar to the English word “you” in Sanskrit we can say that;

पुत्र त्वं नरः
putra tvaṃ naraḥ
Son, you are a man

Case 8 (address) गज

gaja

 

गजौ

gajau

 

गजाः

gajāḥ