गच्छामि गजम् इति मन्यते
gacchāmi gajam iti manyate
“I go to the elephant,” he thinks (or, he thinks that he is going).
These two are the commonly used words in Sanskrit. iti is used like a quotation mark and is a slightly more powerful used intonation that denotes the attitude of the mind and the context on which it is said.
स वीर इति गच्छन्ति
sa vīra iti gacchanti
Thinking that he is a hero, they go..
Thus thinking, they go.
An important feature of iti is that it initiates an idea and lets the rest of the sentence refer to it or follow I, the feature which, among all the Indo-European language is seen only in Sanskrit. However, such features were seen in the Dravidian and Munda languages, which makes us believe that it was borrowed from them.
The word iva means something like “like,” “as if,” or “it seems.” Like ca and va. iva must follow the word it refers to. It is usually used with nouns.
वीर इव वदति
vīra iva vadati
He speaks like a hero (or, as if he were a hero)
नर इव बालो मां नयति
nara iva bālo māṃ nayati
The boy leads me as if he were a man.
नरम् इव बालो मां नयति
naram iva bālo māṃ nayati
The boy leads me as if I were a man.